Thursday, 11 May 2017

Know Your Muscle : Hamstring Muscle Detail

 Hamstring (Lower Limb Muscle ) :
Hamstring Muscle Detail


In human anatomy, a hamstring is a Group Of three muscle in posterior side of thigh  (from medial to lateral: semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris).
Main Action Of Hamstring is Flexion Of Knee Joint. Working With Quadriceps And Mainly Doing Co-Contraction During Running And Our Day-to-day Activities And Tightness is the most common in this Muscle require Stretching Exercise At Regular Interval.


Common Features Of Hamstring Muscle : 

They All Originates Arounds Tibial Tuberocity.
Insertion Below Knee Joint Over Tibia or Fibula.
Innervated By Tibial Nerve Branch Of Sciatic Nerve.
Must Flex The Knee And Extends The Hip Joint

All This Functionality is Compulsory to include in Hamstring Group.


Origin And Insertion  :

Semimembranosus : Origin From Ischial Tuberocity And Insertion over Medial Tibial Condyle.

Semitendinosus : Origin Also From Ischial Tuberocity And Insertion Over Medial Surface Of Tibia.

Biceps Femoris (Long Head ) : Origin Also From Ischial Tuberocity And Insertion Over Lateral Side Of The Head Of The Fibula.

Biceps Femoris (Short Head) : Origin From linea aspera & lateral supracondylar line of femur And Insertion Over Lateral Side Of The Head Of The Fibula With Long Head Common Tendon.

Nerve Supply : 


Semimembranosus,Semitendinosus And Biceps Femoris Long Head Nerve Supply is Tibial Nerve Part Of Sciatic Nerve.

Biceps Femoris Short Head Nerve Supply is Common Peroneal Nerve Part Of Sciatic Nerve.

Action Of Hamstring Muscle : 


Strenthening Exercise Of Hamstring Muscle


Hamstring Muscle Crosses Two Joint So Working Chiefly Over The Knee Joint And Do Strong Action is Knee Flexion And Part time Also Helping in Hip Extension With Gluteus Maximus.

Semimembranosus,Semitendinosus Extends Hip Joint And Flex The Knee Joint And Also Rotate Knee Joint When Knee is Flexed.

Long Head Of Biceps Femoris is Extends The Hip Joint And Both Long And Short Head Flex The Knee Joint And Laterally Rotate The Hip When Knee Flexion Position.

Hamstring is One Of The Strongest Antagonist Muscle As Compared To Other Antagonist Muscle Require All Day To Day Activity Like Running, Jumping, Walking , Squating And Working With Quadriceps and Doing Co-contraction.
Co-Contraction Of Hamstring And Quadriceps Muscle 



Clinical Significance :

Hamstring Muscle Is One Of The Commonest Muscle That Tightness Is Present Too Often And Require Regular Stretching Exercise To Avoid to Tear Or Damage to Related Muscle And Ligament.Sciatica is Also Associated With Tightness Of Hamstring is seen Too Often.
Semitendinosus is Also Used In Surgery Of ACL Ligament Reconstruction Surgery.

Exercise Of Hamstring Muscle :


Strenthening Of Hamstring  In Standing Position


Strengthening Exercise : Strentherning Exercise In Prone Position With Sandbag in Early Stage And Later Stages Standing Position Body Towards Wall And Flexed With Sand Bag is Most Common Exercise.


Home Based Stretching Exercise Of Hamstring Muscle 


Stretching Exercise :  Long Sitting Position And Toe Touch is One Of The Most Common Hamstring Stretching Exercise And This Position in Yoga Called " Paschimotanasan- Yoga Position ".


Hamstring Muscle Stretching In Supine Position














Related Article : 


Calf Muscle Detail

Post Free Ads

Monday, 8 May 2017

Calf Muscle Detail And Exercise :


 Calf Muscle   : ( 2nd Heart ) Muscle Of Lower Limb.

Calf Muscle is Located On Back Side Of The Leg And Is Made Of 2 Large Muscle To Join Make Tendo Achiilis.



Muscle Detail Of  Back Side Of Leg


(1) Gastrocnemius Muscle :  is the larger Calf Muscle Forming The Bulge Of Muscle Mass And Visible Beneath the skin.

Gastrocnemius has 2 Heads Which Looks Like Diamond Shape.


Anatomy Of Calf Muscle



(2) The Soleus Muscle:  Small Muscle , Flatt And Underneath The Gastrocnemius Muscle.

A majority of soleus muscle fibers originate from each side of the anterior aponeurosis, attached to the tibia and fibula.


Insertion : 

        Both Muscle Insertion Merge Via Tendo Achiilis And The Achilles tendon inserts into the heel bone (calcaneus).


Nerve Supply : 

(Calf Area- Lumbar 4-5 and Sacral 1-5 is of the sacral plexus) 

The sciatic nerve branches off of the sacral plexus in which the tibial and common fibular(Peroneal) nerves are wrapped in one sheath. The tibial nerve eventually separates from the sciatic nerve and innervates the gastrocnemius muscle.


Action Of Calf Muscle :


Calf Muscle Stretching


 Calf Muscle is Strong Lower Limb Muscle Which Planter Flex From Ankle Joint. 

This Muscle is Anti Gravity Muscle And Normally All Anti Gravity Muscle Require High Power That's Why All Anti Gravity Muscle Are Bulky And Strong. 

Running, Jumping, Dancing , Cycling All This Activity Use Calf Muscle. 

Jumping is The Highest Uses Calf Muscle.

This Muscle is Also Called 2nd Hearst And Low Use Of This Muscle May Lead Vericose Vein And Oedema Around Ankle.

Sports Person Usually High Use Of This Muscle May Lead Cramps.

Classical Dancers And Gymanatics Also Use Calf Muscle More And Require Special Attention To Develop , strenthen Calf Muscle.

Exercise Of Calf Muscle:


Calf Muscle Strengthening Exercise With Use Of Body Weight


Active Movement in Supine Position is  Simple Planter Flex From Ankle.

Resisted Exercise : Self Resisted Exercise is to High Hill Action In Standing Position.


Calf Muscle Exercise With Full Body Weight Single Leg-Tuff One


Gradually Increase Repetation And Jumping, Running, Cycling Are Other Exercise That Are Useful To Strengthen And Most Common Form Of Exercise.


Calf Muscle Strenthening Exercise With Weight 



Stretching Exercise : 

Use Of Belt Like And Wrap Around Ankle in Long Sitting With Stretch Towards Ankle is Home Made Calf Exercise.


Home Made Low Intensity Calf Stretching For Elderly


Standing Position :  Both Leg In Same Line Position With Around Minimum Foot Distance With Forward Leg Flexed From Knee And Back Leg Straight , You Will Feel Stretching in Back Calf Muscle And Then Change Leg Again Do Some Practice.


Calf Stretching In Standing Position



Medical Use Of Calf Muscle:

Use Of Calf Muscle in Medical Field is Too Important. Generally Blood Flow Upside Down is Easy But From Ankle To Up Towards Heart , It's Need Calf Muscle Active Exercise, In Paralysis And Other Bed Ridden Patient Ankle Swelling Are Most Common And That Cases Physiotherapist Start Active Exercise Of Calf Muscle With Elevation Of Ankle Joint.That's Why This Muscle Also Called 2nd Heart.

Related Article :


All About Quadriceps Muscle



Ads :



Post Free Ads




Sunday, 15 January 2017

Frozen Shoulder And Physiotherapy Treatment :

What is frozen shoulder? : 

Frozen Shoulder


Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is stiffness, pain, and restricted R.O.M (range of movement) in your shoulder . It may happen after an injury or overuse or from a disease such as diabetes or a stroke,Post Operative surgeory Near to shoulder joint. The tissues around the joint stiffen, scar tissue forms, and shoulder movements become restricted & painful. The condition usually comes on gradually, then recover slowly over the course of a year or more.

 Causes Of frozen shoulder :

Frozen shoulder can develop when you stop using the joint normally because of pain, injury, or a chronic health condition, such as diabetes or a stroke. Any shoulder problem can lead to frozen shoulder if you do not work to keep full range of motion.

Frozen shoulder main cause:

post operative surgery near to sholder.
After surgery or injury.
Most often in people 40 to 70 years old.
More often in women (especially in postmenopausal women) than in men.cover
Most often in people with chronic diseases.
chest pain and diabetes are often associated with.



Frozen shoulder diagnoses : 

Your doctor specially phsiotherapist may suspect frozen shoulder if a physical exam reveals restricted shoulder movement. An X-ray may be done to see whether symptoms are from another condition such as arthritis or a broken bone.

Shoulder Joint movement( R.O.M) :

Flextion : 0-180 degree
Extension : 0-60 degree
Abduction:  0-180 degree
Adduction : 0-45 degree
Int.Rotation : 0-90 degree
Ext. Rotation : 0-90 degree

Treatment Of Frozen Shoulder :





Treatment for frozen shoulder usually starts with Analgesic Drugs,Hot Pack, followed by gentle stretching.  And physical therapy can help increase your range of motion. A frozen shoulder can take a 2 month to  year or more to get better.


Exercise Of Frozen Shoulder


Back Stretch with towel

shoulder ladder exercise

assisted back stretch with opposite hand

shoulder wheel and ladder exercise


If treatment is not helping, surgery is sometimes done to loosen some of the tight tissues around the shoulder. Two surgeries are often done. In one surgery, called under anesthesia Release, you are put to anaesthesize shoulder and then your arm is moved into positions that stretch the tight tissue. The other surgery uses an arthroscope to cut through tight tissues and scar tissue. These surgeries can both be done at the same time.


prevention and care :

Gentle, progressive range-of-motion exercises, stretching, and using your shoulder in day to day activity more may help prevent frozen shoulder after surgery or an injury. Experts don't know what causes some cases of frozen shoulder, and it may not be possible to prevent these. But be patient and follow your doctor's advice. Frozen shoulder nearly always gets better over time.



Ads :

Post Free Ads